rome berlin axis apush significance

[7] At the time, he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume. The Vichy France regime, a de facto ally of Germany, accepted the takeover. In response, Hitler promised that he would accept Austria's independence for the time being, saying that due to the internal tensions in Germany (referring to sections of the Nazi Sturmabteilung that Hitler would soon kill in the Night of the Long Knives) that Germany could not afford to provoke Italy. ; October 2, 1935-May 1936 Fascist Italy invades, conquers, and annexes Ethiopia. Germany, determined to conquer all of Europe and adjacent areas, wanted to get Japan into the war as a means of further weakening Great Britain (and subsequently the Soviet Union), and of diverting American attention to the Pacific. The first step was the protocol signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936, after which Italian leader Benito Mussolini declared that all other European countries would thereafter rotate on the RomeBerlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis". MacGregor Knox. Cooperation between Japan and Germany began with the Anti-Comintern Pact, in which the two countries agreed to ally to challenge any attack by the Soviet Union. It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub, a Mongol nobleman descended from Genghis Khan, but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military. [39] Italy did not mobilize its economy; its GNP committed to the war effort remained at prewar levels. The alliance originated in a series of agreements between Germany and Italy, followed by the proclamation of an "axis" binding Rome and Berlin (October 25, 1936), with the two powers claiming that the world would henceforth rotate on the Rome-Berlin axis. Various nominally-independent governments formed out of local sympathisers under varying degrees of German, Italian, and Japanese control were established within the territories that they occupied during the war. Rome-Berlin Axis | Article about Rome-Berlin Axis by The Free Dictionary The Indian National Army was committed as a part of the U Go Offensive. As late as 1934 she was hostile to German expansion in Austria. Paulus thus modified the Hungarian plan and kept their troops west of the Tisza.[99]. Adriana Boscaro, Franco Gatti, Massimo Raveri, (eds). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., between 320,000 and 340,000 Serbs were killed in the NDH.[94]. Wesport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997. p. 68. When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Jingwei government in March 1940, Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation. They also invaded Malaya and Hong Kong. An estimated 120,000 people were interned in German-run concentration camps in Nedi's Serbia between 1941 and 1944. Terms in this set (51) Cordell Hull. See e.g.. Puppet state installed by the Axis Powers, see, e.g., Official position of wartime government was that they were a co-belligerent of the Axis against the USSR and United Kingdom during the. Flashcards. Neither the Japanese nor the Germans could decipher the codes used by these Navajo, Comanche, Choctaw, and Cherokee speakers, and the messages they sent gave the Allies great advantage in the battle of Iwo Jima, among others. In the spring of 1941 Japanese naval and military inspecting groups were dispatched to Germany and Italy. Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies during the war. Axis powers, coalition headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan that opposed the Allied powers in World War II. After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but the British demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from Malaya during the war. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Holocaust Encyclopedia - Axis Alliance in World War II, Axis Powers - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Japanese also fought skirmishes with SovietMongolian forces in Manchukuo in 1938 and 1939. From late 1940 Hitler sought a non-aggression pact with Yugoslavia. Chen Gongbo was tried and executed in 1946. The Americans who worked on the project at Los Alamos, New Mexico (among other highly secretive sites around the country), succeeded in producing a successful atomic bomb by July 1945. [137] In addition, Spain held ambitions on former Spanish colonies in Latin America. The party's ascent was fueled by huge World War I reparation payments, economic depression, fear of communism, labor unrest, and rising unemployment. On 10 April 1941, the so-called Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Drava Hrvatska, or NDH), an installed GermanItalian puppet state, co-signed the Tripartite Pact. In April 1941 Rashid Ali, on seizing power in a coup, repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 and demanded that the British abandon their military bases and withdraw from the country. [138] In June 1940 the Spanish government approached Germany to propose an alliance in exchange for Germany recognizing Spain's territorial aims: the annexation of the Oran Province of Algeria, the incorporation of all Morocco, the extension of Spanish Sahara southward to the twentieth parallel, and the incorporation of French Cameroons into Spanish Guinea. Finland maintained command of its armed forces and pursued war objectives independently of Germany. Neither the leaders of Germany nor of Japan thought in terms of rendering direct assistance to the other party, or of joining together in combined operations against the common enemies. Taiwan was a Japanese dependency established in 1895. [49] Poland rejected Germany's demands and Germany in response prepared a general mobilization on the morning of 30 August 1939. Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the air force, engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. "[83]. A political and military alliance formed in 1936 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. It played a largely marginal role in the battle, and suffered serious casualties and had to withdraw with the rest of Japanese forces after the siege of Imphal was broken. By 1943, the tide began to turn. The possibility of Spanish intervention in World War II was of concern to the United States, which investigated the activities of Spain's ruling Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las JONS in Latin America, especially Puerto Rico, where pro-Falange and pro-Franco sentiment was high, even amongst the ruling upper classes. The Axis championed a number of variants on fascism, militarism, and autarky. He was proclaimed the Emperor of Manchukuo a year later. The remainder of the country was occupied by German military forces and organized into the Protectorate. [142] The Falangists promoted the idea of supporting Spain's former colonies in fighting against American domination. sariee_x. [107] British historian Dennis Deletant has asserted that Romania's crucial contributions to the Axis war effort, including having the third largest Axis army in Europe and sustaining the German war effort through oil and other materiel, meant that it was "on a par with Italy as a principal ally of Germany and not in the category of a minor Axis satellite". Popularly known as the GI Bill, legislation authorizing the government to provide World War II veterans with funds for education, housing, and heath care, as well as loans to start businesses and buy homes. In response to the landings, German and Italian forces invaded the non-occupied zone in southern France and ended Vichy France as an entity with any kind of autonomy; it then became a puppet government for the occupied territories. The advance of Italo-German interests during from 1935 to the beginning of the Second World War -- an era characterized by the Great Depression and appeasement -- also created an aura of totalitarian success and collaboration. Under the terms of this agreement Japan recognized and respected the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe, and Germany and Italy correspondingly recognized and respected the leadership of Japan in East Asia. Rome-Berlin Axis Nazi Hitler and Fascist Mussolini allied themselves Neutrality Acts stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent. After the Italian armistice, the Italian occupation zone was taken over by the German armed forces, who remained in charge of the country until their withdrawal in autumn 1944. p. 31. After the Siege of Odessa, the city became the capital of the Governorate. They saw the extermination and expulsion or deportation of Serbs as necessary to racially purify Croatia. The League of Nations later declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 19181940. Tan gives her audience stories that are based on her family history. The Ustae regime lacked general support among Croats and never accrued any significant support among the populace. The racial laws were enforced by the Ustae militia. The puppet regime never commanded any real authority, and did not gain the allegiance of the people. The Germans recruited volunteers in units independent of Vichy. Common Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. 1966 revised edition It was published by Oxford University Press as a 376-page hardcover, in 1949. Japan received these as a reward by the Allies of World War I, when Japan was then allied against Germany. Match. Its principal members were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Empire of Japan. This was accepted by Hitler and, within two weeks, there were more than enough volunteers to form a division the Blue Division (Divisin Azul) under General Agustn Muoz Grandes. In November 1936, the term "axis" was first officially used by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini when he spoke of a Rome-German axis arising out of the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on 25 October 1936. shortly after the signing of the Rome Berlin Axis. The meeting did not proceed amicably. When the King of Italy ousted Mussolini from power and Italy capitulated, the NDH became completely under German influence. The General Government was the name given to the territories of occupied Poland that were not directly annexed into German provinces, but like Bohemia and Moravia was considered within the sovereign territory of Germany by the Nazi authorities. Wesport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997. p. 75. In the occupied Netherlands, Anton Mussert was given the symbolic title of "Fhrer of the Netherlands' people". rome berlin axis apush significance. H. James Burgwyn. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Bulgarian government declared war on the Western Allies. Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939 the Axis partners were brought closer together. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on 17 September and on 28 September signed a secret treaty with Nazi Germany to coordinate fighting against the Polish resistance. The book includes in its fifteen chapters the background and the personal life of the Hitler and Mussolini, their relations under different events like the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Spanish Civil War, Austria Anschluss, the diplomatic missions of Mussolini in Germany and Hitler in Italy, the Munich crisis, the Pact of Steel, the outbreak of the war and the alliance during the war since the fall of the regimes. Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising, which began on 29 August 1944, and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Josef Tiso. Prior to 1935, Italy had sided politically with GreatBritain and France. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. Arrow Cross officers helped Adolf Eichmann re-activate the deportation proceedings from which the Jews of Budapest had thus far been spared, sending some 80,000 Jews out of the city on slave labour details and many more straight to death camps. iUniverse, 2006. p. 271. On 26 September 1940, de Gaulle led an attack by Allied forces on the Vichy port of Dakar in French West Africa. APUSH CH 27-28. June 6, 1944, the date of the Allied invasion of northern France. Initial proposals of a GermanItalian alliance, Development of GermanItalianJapanese alliance, China (Reorganized National Government of China), Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, German, Italian and Japanese World War II cooperation, Official name of the occupied territory translated from. Top-secret project authorized by Franklin Roosevelt in 1942 to develop an atomic bomb ahead of the Germans. Raymond J. Sontag in American Historical Review Vol. [6].mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}, The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's La Germania Repubblicana that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin" (non v'ha dubbio che in questo momento l'asse della storia europea passa per Berlino). Is secondary evidence the basis for drawing scientific conclusions? Partly as a result of the great animosity of many right-wingers against the pre-war Front Populaire, volunteers joined the German forces in their anti-communist crusade against the USSR. This number included neither the army based in the French colonial empire nor the French Navy. The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from 11 March to 23 August 1945. [114] However the United States and Britain ignored Denmark and worked with Henrik Kauffmann Denmark's ambassador in the US when it came to dealings about using Iceland, Greenland, and the Danish merchant fleet against Germany.[115][116]. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. [96] On 30 August 1940, as a result of the GermanItalian arbitrated Second Vienna Award Romania had to cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary. This was followed by the coup d'tat of 9 September 1944, which brought a government of the pro-Soviet Fatherland Front to power. In 1940 Japan responded to the German invasion of France by occupying northern French Indochina. Several Balli Kombtar leaders held positions in the regime. German and Hungarian forces tried to hold off the Soviet advance but failed. [by whom?]. Yugoslavia was largely surrounded by members of the pact and now bordered the German Reich. Japan likewise had no ambitions in Europe and did not expect to participate in the war in that area, but she did wish to take advantage of Britain's plight to satisfy her own designs in East. Groups of spectators are lined up to see the king. During fighting between Iraqi and British forces Axis forces were deployed to Iraq to support the Iraqis. Bowman, p. 432). With the advance of British and Indian forces on Baghdad, Iraqi military resistance ended by 31 May 1941. Italian foreign policy in the interwar period, 19181940. For Germany it meant that her south boundary was protected. The book focuses on the background and the personalities of Mussolini and Hitler. [53], After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the outbreak of war between Japan and the United States, Germany supported Japan by declaring war on the US. They were both allied with Japan. [30] The response to the pact was met with similar division in Germany; while the proposed pact was popular amongst the upper echelons of the Nazi Party, it was opposed by many in the Foreign Ministry, the Army, and the business community who held financial interests in the Republic of China to which Japan was hostile. Mussolini Unleashed, 19391941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. If a sentence is already correct, write CCC after it. The Ba Maw government mobilised Burmese society during the war to support the Axis war-effort.[145]. Write. Initially achieving a series of victories, by 1943 the Japanese forces were driven back towards the home islands. "[83] In October and November 1940, Yamamoto communicated with Navy Minister Oikawa, and stated, "Unlike the pre-Tripartite days, great determination is required to make certain that we avoid the danger of going to war. Nazi Foreign Policy, 19331941: The Road to Global War. King Ssavngvong was detained by the Japanese, and forced to issue a declaration of independence, albeit one that does not appear to have ever been formalised. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [45] Relations between Germany and Poland altered from the early to the late 1930s, as Germany sought rapprochement with Poland to avoid the risk of Poland entering the Soviet sphere of influence, and appealed to anti-Soviet sentiment in Poland. The Japanese government justified its actions by claiming that it was seeking to unite East Asia under Japanese leadership in a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere that would free East Asians from domination and rule by clients of Western powers. The provisional government was given nominal control of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from November 1943 to August 1945. Rome Berlin Axis by Zach Faulkner - Prezi In addition to the three major Axis powers, six other countries signed the Tri-Partite Pact as its member states. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 234; Kershaw, Ian. [195] Plans for Rainbow Five had been published by the press early in December 1941,[196] and Hitler could no longer ignore the amount of economic and military aid the US was giving Britain and the USSR. The border with Poland was shifted back to the pre-war state. Mengjiang was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia. [102] After suffering devastating losses at Stalingrad, Romanian officials began secretly negotiating peace conditions with the Allies. On 10 July 1940, Ptain was given emergency "full powers" by a majority vote of the French National Assembly. margargaret. As an ally of Japan during the war that deployed troops to fight on the Japanese side against Allied forces, Thailand is considered to have been part of the Axis alliance,[147][148][149] or at least "aligned with the Axis powers". [39] Nearly one-quarter of Germany's GNP was committed to the war effort in 1939, and this rose to three-quarters of GNP in 1944, prior to the collapse of the economy. The First Indian National Army faltered after its leadership objected to being a propaganda tool for Japanese war aims, and the role of Japanese liaison office. H. James Burgwyn. [58] Italy, like Germany, also justified its actions by claiming that Italy needed to territorially expand to provide spazio vitale ("vital space") for the Italian nation. [124][125] Finland's relative independence from Germany put it in the most advantageous position of all the minor Axis powers. Identified by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as the most basic human rights: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. [126], Whilst Finland's relationship with Nazi Germany during the Continuation War remains controversial within Finland,[127] in a 2008 Helsingin Sanomat survey of 28 Finnish historians, 16 agreed that Finland had been an ally of Nazi Germany, with only 6 disagreeing.[128]. The alliance originated in a series of agreements between Germany and Italy, followed by the proclamation of an axis binding Rome and Berlin (October 25, 1936), with the two powers claiming that the world would henceforth rotate on the Rome-Berlin axis. Romania joined the German-led invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. It was revived by the Indian Independence League with Japanese support in 1942 after the ex-PoWs and Indian civilians in South-east Asia agreed to participate in the INA venture on the condition it was led by Bose. While Germany had been engaged in a titanic struggle against England for a year, Japan, up to the conclusion of the alliance, had contributed nothing. H. James Burgwyn. It was later committed to the defence of Burma against the Allied offensive. William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, Kent Forster, "Finland's Foreign Policy 19401941: An Ongoing Historiographic Controversy,". Very few steps were taken toward cooperation between the Axis members in naval and military matters, nor were realistic plans made for the future. Doubtless I shall die on board Nagato [his flagship]. On 31 May 1939, Denmark and Germany signed a treaty of non-aggression, which did not contain any military obligations for either party. [26] French and Italian military staff discussed possible military cooperation involving a war with Germany should Hitler dare to attack Austria. In fewer than three months, Arrow Cross death squads killed as many as 38,000 Hungarian Jews. [27] The proposed pact was met with mixed reviews in Japan, with a faction of ultra-nationalists within the government supporting the pact while the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japanese Foreign Ministry were staunchly opposed to the pact. [18], Mussolini did not trust Hitler's intentions regarding Anschluss nor Hitler's promise of no territorial claims on South Tyrol. Learn. [86] Many people sympathized with the anti-Semitic policy of the Nazi regime. [51], Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 involved issues of lebensraum, anti-communism, and Soviet foreign policy. Hitler would also begin to free Germanyfrom the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and Anglo-French encirclement. Test. Over 500,000 soldiers served on the Eastern Front. Interventionists became increasingly vocal in 1940 as war escalated in Europe. Historian Ian Kershaw suggests that this declaration of war against the United States was a serious blunder made by Germany and Italy, as it allowed the United States to join the war in Europe and North Africa without any limitation. Hungarian troops, like their Axis counterparts, were involved in numerous actions against the Soviets. A committee organized by isolationists in 1940 to oppose the entrance of the United States into World War II. A most important step in the military features of the German plan was the signing on 25 and 26 October, 1936, of a treaty with protocols, between Germany and Italy, which together formed the origin of the now famous Rome-Berlin Axis. As Ambassador Grew pointed Three Power Treaty was "a Japanese gamble on the defeat of Germany." Denmark broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1941. Corrections? [162][163] Hitler never responded to Stalin's letter. The Second World War, Volume III, The Grand Alliance. The Rome Berlin Axis was made to ensure that high powers in countries, such as Rome, Berlin and Tokyo, if attacked would have sufficient help from other countries, who would help defend. Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies. The Royal Danish Navy scuttled 32 of its larger ships; Germany seized 64 ships and later raised and refitted 15 of the sunken vessels. [70] Germany's insolence towards Italy as an ally was demonstrated that year when Italy was pressured to send 350,000 "guest workers" to Germany who were used as forced labour. APUSH Second Great Awakening. On 25 May 1941, the Germans stepped up offensive operations in the Middle East. 370371. Nurture is opposite in meaning to the word, FDR's Secretary of State who believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; supported the Good Neighbor policy, Communist leader of Russia; on of the 3 big powers during WWII along with Roosevelt and Churchill; usually was asking for a western front to be established to relieve the USSR, Fascist dictator of Italy; sought to create a new empire; became allies with Hitler against the Allies of WWII; was overthrown and beheaded in 1943 after the fall of Sicily during the war, German dictator who used the disillusioned and depressed German population to advance his ideas; led the nation after the Treaty of Versailles; manipulated and feared dictator who hated the Jewish Nation, overthrew the Loyalist regime in Spain and with the help from Hitler and Mussolini, became the dictator during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, prime minster of England during WWII; great inspiration over the radio for his citizens during the air-bombings; favored the Eight-point Atlatic Charter and was involved in the 1st conference; was one of the big 3, 1st person to fly solo across the Atlantic ocean; became an ambassador of goodwill for the US; crazed isolationist who led the America First Committee, Republican candidate in the election of 1940 against FDR and lost, govn't where it has complete control with powerless people, opposition to a country's involvement in international afffairs; US policy in the 1920's; sentiment of the public during WWII, Western Europe used this tactic by giving Hitler Sudetenland in hopes he would not take over other countries, 66 nations attended this in the summer of 1933; revealed Roosevelt's closeness between his foreign policy and domestic economic policies were; the attendees organized a coordinated international attack on the global depression, established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America; reduced American military influence there, passed in 1934 to raise American exports for relief and recovery; led by Cordell Hull and helped reverse high tariff policy, established in Germany by Fascist belief; believed the state should be a strong central govn't with absolute power; Hitler added racism to these beliefs; believed in a supreme Aryan Race, a 1936 alliance between Hitler and Mussolini and bother were allied with Japan to fight the allies in WWII, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia to pursue glory and an empire in Africa; the US and League of Nations did nothing to stop him or assist the helpless civilians, nickname used to condemn the munitions manufacturers in critical books and articles, an effort by Congress in 1935,36, and 37 to try to legislate the nation out of war; stated when the president proclaimed foreign war, restrictions would be put in place against that foreign nation, occurred in 1936-1939 and was considered a "dress rehearsal" for WWII;rebels led by Franco, overthrew the loyalist govn't, given by Roosevelt in Chicago in the fall of 1937; called upon positive action to cut down aggression by Italy and Japan especially by economic embargoes; isolationists protested, signed on Aug. 23rd, 1939 between Hitler and Stalin claiming Hitler could invade Poland without fear of a Russian attack; helped spawn WWII, policy for Europe to buy US materials in WWII; they would have to transport the munitions in their own ships after a cash payment for the goods, when Hitler pulled out of Poland, the rest of Europe was in shock, which Hitler used this weakness when he attacked Norway and Denmark, Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, most potent supporter group to aid GB; had two sides of arguments supporting them: interventionists cried GB was fighting the war for the US and the isolationists said the US should supply all short of war, organized by isolationists before WWII; wanted to spare American lives and protect the country instead of going to war; Charles Lindbergh was their most effective speaker, a deal in which the US gave GB 50 destroyers in exchange for 8 valuable defensive base sites, passed in 1941 and stated the US would borrow weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression9 who would in turn finish the war- keep the US from joining, conflict between China and Japan from 1937- the attack on Pearl Harbor; Japan's aggression in Manchuria and China sparked outrage and demand for the re-establishment of the Open Door Policy in China, Secretary of War who strongly believed war industry and production would be the boost to get the sunken economy out of the depression era, black lead of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII, put in charge for putting Japan back together and later was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945 but was fired by Truman for insubordination, Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942; commanded the Pacific Ocean American fleet and decoded Japan's radio messages, giving him a victorious advantage over Japan, US general who lead the N. African attack in 1942; master organizer of the D-day invasion; ran as the republican nominee in both 1952 & 1956 and won both times, Chinese general who the US was sending supplies while he fought the Japanese invasion, governor of Ny and republican candidate in 1944 but lost to FDR; he also ran against Truman in 1949 and even the public thought he had won, but was swept by Truman in the overnight tallies, took over presidency during WWII after FDR's death; was called an average man and didn't have a college education; veteran artillery officer in WWI and was later responsible for dropping the atomic bomb on Japan, German-born scientist who encourage FDR and America to build the first atomic bomb, halted the manufacture of nonessential items to set priority on transportation and raw materials; led to rationing of gasoline and rubber and led to massive production of those goods, created by FDR to prevent inflation in the WWI economy, women organization for those serving a noncombat duty in the army, the face of the mothers who went off to take over men's jobs left when the US went to war, Mexican agricultural workers who were sent to the US to work to make up the worker shortages; became permanent in some Western ag economies years after the end of WWII, FDR established this initially to give fair employment to blacks; purpose now to protect and serve all races, sexes, ages, and ethnicities involving employment, a historic meeting between FDR and Churchill in Morocco in January 1943; during the conference, the agreed to step up Pacific aggression,.